キハラハント愛の世界漂流徒然日記

国連平和維持活動、国際人権法、治安部門改革の分野で活動する キハラハント愛のブログです。

軍の民主的統制ジュネーブセンター

DCAFとの会議 (スイス大使公邸 会食)

DCAF dinner small




























先週末、軍の民主的統制ジュネーブセンター
(DCAF: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces)のディレクター、
Thomas Guerber大使が日本を訪れている機会に、
在日スイス大使より、公式ディナーが開催され、
ご招待いただきました。

DCAFは以前より色々な形で注目している機関で、
多くの専門家を抱えて
治安部門改革などを手掛け、
各国の政府にリソースを提供し、
治安部門改革にアドバイス、協力する
専門機関です。
国連警察について
国連の事務総長の改革案の元になる
調査をし、報告を行ったのが、この機関です。
昨年私も訪問して意見交換をしたことがありました。

スイス大使、DCAFディレクターを始め、
総勢18人の日本のSSRに関わる専門家が招待されていましたが、
警察の話はフォーマルなセッティングでは
なかなか出ません。
コーヒータイムに入ってから
DCAFのアジア太平洋局の局長さんと
詳しい話ができました。

国連警察の軍隊化について、
また、
国連警察の刑事的アカウンタビリティではなくて、
マンデートを遂行する、そして
人々に対するアカウンタビリティに関して、
できれば共同研究をしたい専門家の方々が、
DCAFにはいるのです。

フォローアップして行きたいと思います。


国連警察についてDCAF(軍の民主的統制ジュネーブセンター)との会議

9月23日、国際平和構築協会 会長の長谷川先生と
ジュネーブのDCAF(軍の民主的統制ジュネーブセンター)を訪れ、
国連警察の改革と日本の関連分野への協力の可能性についての意見交換ミーティングを行いました。
DCAFは、今年の夏に出された、
初めての国連警察の外部審査報告書において、
セクレタリアットとして機能した機関です。

報告書には、国連の安全保障理事会が採択するマンデートと
確保できる人材とのギャップが隠すところなく描き出され、
マンデートをより現実的なものにするか、
よりマンデートに合った人材を違う方法で確保するか、
どちらかしかない、ということが書かれていました。
私の国連警察についての研究においても、
これは顕著な問題で、大枠において報告書と同意するところが多いです。

ひとつだけ、報告書は国連警察が各国の警察官だけでなく
国連加盟国から送られる人材の中に文民の専門家を入れるのが良いとしており、
その点においては、私は文民の専門家を国連が選抜するのが良いと考えます。
なぜなら、国連警察の選抜においては、
不透明な部分が多く、ほぼ警察官だけで通気性も悪いため、
透明性を増し、また、必要な人材を国連が確保しやすいように、
文民の専門家については専門家のポストで国連が選抜するべきだと考えます。
加盟国からそれらのポストに資金を出してもらうのが困難だという場合には、
専門家のポストが資金を出す国出身の人限定のポストになることは考えられるでしょう。
それでも、国連が直接選抜に関われるという意味で、
加盟国が自国の国家公務員を
「セコンドメント」という方式で
国家公務員という立場を継続したまま国連に送るよりも
透明性が増すのではないかと思います。

以下、長谷川先生のウェブサイト上の記事にも掲載していただきました、
このミーティングに関する私の報告書です。


Report on the Consultation Meeting


Kihara-Hunt Ai


23 September 2016
DCAF office, Maison de la Paix, Geneva


Professor Sukehiro Hasegawa, President of the Global Peacebuilding Association of Japan (GPAJ) and Dr. Kihara-Hunt Ai, Fellow at the University of Essex and member of GPAJ, visited the DCAF office. From DCAF, Assistant Director of DCAF and Head of the International Security Sector Advisory Team (ISSAT) Dr. Mark Downes, ISSAT members Mr. Michael Johnson, Mr. Patrick Hagan, Mr. Pedro Rosa Menes, and Ms. Elsa Dazin attended the meeting. It served two main purposes: a) to discuss the report of external review of the UN police published in 2015, and b) to seek ways of cooperation between DCAF with Japan, taking into consideration recent trends in peacekeeping and peacebuilding in Japan.

 
Prof. Hasegawa introduced his initiatives in relation to United Nations (UN) studies in East Asia. He chairs the Global Peacebuilding Association, which provides a forum for academics and practitioners in Japan to discuss issues related to peacebuilding. East Asian Forum on Peace Operations involves experts and academics from Japan, China, South Korea and Mongolia. It had the first expert gathering in April 2016. Academic Council on the United Nations System (ACUNS)’ East Asian branch has academics and practitioners from Japan, China and Korea. Prof. Hasegawa expressed his intent to create an impact by bringing experts in neighbouring countries together.


Dr. Mark Downs explained the mode of operation of DCAF, which is consisted of member States, currently of 64 of them. They are mostly European States, but DCAF is attempting to be a more global organization, and would welcome Japan as a member. Mostly DCAF deals directly with government entities, and the model of cooperation and assistance is tailored to specific needs of the member States. Currently three geographic areas are in focus: Europe, Middle East and North Africa, and Sub Saharan Africa. International Security Sector Advisory Team (ISSAT) is a standing capacity to support international capacity, through advice, training and capacity building, knowledge services and advocacy.


Last year, DCAF worked as the secretariat for the external UN Police review. The review was co-chaired by former Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG) Hilde F. Johnson and Ambassador Abdallah Wafy, the Permanent Representative of Niger to the UN in New York, and the team was consisted of seven experts. They had consultations at the headquarters and in the field, including through a 3-day workshop in Entebbe, Uganda, consultations with Group of Friends, 10 top Police Contributing Countries (PCCs), senior police advisors and members of Special Committee on Peace-Keeping Operations (C-34).


Findings of the external review on the UN Police were presented. The UN Police are operating in changing environment, and face a number of challenges including that of struggle to secure sufficient number of appropriately trained police personnel, militarization of police, and the increased complexity of mandates that have to be delivered with the same type of police personnel. At times they must deliver tasks that they are not trained in, and as a result they deliver diverse results. The UN is left with two choices: to make fundamental changes in the supply of human resource to deliver the mandate, or to make the mandate less ambitious. Providing assistance in institution building requires different skills from those of policing or providing training. For some of those newly required skills, civilian experts would be better suited than uniformed personnel.


It was generally agreed that the challenges of the UN police are of the nature that requires a significant change in the UN police’s approach. Civilian expertise may be necessary in a number of areas, for example, to address finance at the ministry level to effect changes in the host State’s police institutions. However, there is a big divide in PCCs on what capacity they are willing to send. Security Sector Reform (SSR) requires a long-term commitment with development approach, working alongside the national government.


Therefore, the involvement of political figures in the host State is vital. The focus cannot just be on the effectiveness of the security sector but also on ensuring that there is system in place to utilize it. It was also agreed that the UN Police needs to be integrated into the bigger picture of UN Peace Operations, and for that, their key positions need to be made more senior. Prof. Hasegawa raised the possibility of values added in taking Eastern approach into account, where peace is considered to be akin to harmony.


Above analysis was discussed in some details in the settings of Timor-Leste and South Sudan. An agreement was reached in that Sustainable Development Goal (STG) 16 (Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions) is universal, but that recognition of realism is necessary. Changes happen over a long period of time.


Dr. Kihara-Hunt presented findings of her research on individual accountability of UN Police personnel. The data and analysis of UN accountability mechanism indicated that the issue of accountability is also linked to bigger challenges that the UN Police is facing: that of human resource, changing environment in which they operate, structure, transparency and institutional culture of accountability.


Prof. Hasegawa presented ideas for Japan’s contribution in the area of Peace Operations. One idea is to have a UN Police academy in Japan to train national police officers in the region and certify them fit for UN Peace Operations. Japan is already spending USD 30-40 million to African institutions, and it may be better for Japan to expand what it does well and provide training for police to join the mission, rather than to defend its inaction. With the current paradigm shift in the domestic arena, Japan is sending military contingents to South Sudan. They can protect UN and Japanese personnel, but not local civilians. This may cause friction on the ground, as it is not consistent with the Protection of Civilians (POC) mandate that the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) has. It is recognized that POC mandates are so challenging that they are not always delivered on the ground anyway. However, in some situations, it may be better that the UN is not there on the ground rather than being there while failing to deliver POC mandate.

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