キハラハント愛の世界漂流徒然日記

国連平和維持活動、国際人権法、治安部門改革の分野で活動する キハラハント愛のブログです。

国連改革

国連システム学術評議会(ACUNS)ニュースレターに

国連システム学術評議会(ACUNS)は、
国連の実務者と国連について研究する研究者たちが集まる会議で、
東京に連絡事務所を持っています。
東京の連絡事務所の副代表として、
6月に行いました「国連を活性化する」と題した会議の報告書を
本部に提出していましたが、
今回のニュースレターに掲載されました。

リンクはこちらです。

会議には高須国連事務次長に基調講演をしていただき、
多数の国連関係者、研究者のご参加をいただきました。
ACUNS本部からは、ジュネーブ連絡事務所代表の
Stephen Browne氏と、
インドからSublash Birla氏に来ていただきました。

21世紀に入り、世界の紛争は一層国境の中で起こり、
一般市民を多く巻き込んでいます。
多くの移民・難民を生み出し、
テロリズムも台頭する中、
各加盟国の国益と世界・人類の共通利益とを
国連はどうバランスを取っていけるのでしょうか。

文民の保護における国連警察の役割:国際平和構築協会セミナー 2017年3月25日

3月25日、国際平和構築協会セミナーにおいて、
文民の保護における国連警察の役割について
お話しさせていただきました。
理事長の長谷川先生のツイートはこちら

国連平和活動において、文民の保護のマンデートは
もはや単にマンデートの一部ではなく、
平和活動そのものの目的である場合もあります。
国連平和活動の中で最も数的にも役割としても成長してきた
国連警察においては、
この文民の保護においてどのような役割が与えられているのでしょうか。
文民の保護という考え方の中心である、
国家ではなく人々を中心に保護するという姿勢と、
受け入れ国のコミュニティと密接に関わりながら働く国連警察の姿勢とに焦点をあて、
国連警察を文民の保護マンデートのより中核に位置させ、
そのために指揮体系や国連の内部構造を整えていくことが必須だと議論しました。

英語版の要約は、下記をご覧ください。
―――



The Role of UnitedNations Police in Protection of Civilians

25 March 2017

Ai Kihara-Hunt

 

Havinginitiated as the United Nation (UN)’s response to mass civilian killings, theconcept of protection of civilians (POC) has become the center of what UNPeace Operationsdelivers. It is the raison d’être fora few recent missions. Prof. Kihara-Hunt explored the role of the UN police inPOC and argued that their central role should be supported institutionally andoperationally.

 

Thepresentation was in three parts: 1) the birth and development of POC, 2) thedevelopment of the role of the UN police, and 3) challenges and suggestions forbetter delivery of POC.

 

  1. ThePOC concept was born as the UN’s response to mass killings of civilians. Thekey is, and remains to be, protecting civilians ‘under imminent threat ofphysical violence’. The content has become more specific. Some recent mandatesidentify specific groups for protection. Earlier mandates included POC as apart, and some more recent ones have POC as their objectives. POC has shiftedfrom an authority to use force to the duty to protect at two levels: at thelevel of peacekeepers and that of the mission. The UN considers its POCmandates in three tiers and four phases, taking a holistic approach with its focuson the community in the host State.

  2. UNpolice is the fastest growing component of UN Peace Operations. Having startedin the 1960s as a 30-member team under the military command, it has grown innumber to around 13,000 and has been long recognized as an independentexistence. Its functions have shifted from monitoring to capacity building andinstitution building. They are required to deliver more and more complex tasks.There are two types of UN police: Individual Police Officers (IPOs, includingSpecialized Police Teams - SPTs), who are seconded by contributing countriesand deployed individually; and Formed Police Units (FPUs), who are seconded asunits of 120-140 police officers. FPUs are deployed for specific tasks, operatingin high-risk environments and/or requiring coherent response. Currently about70 percent of UN police are FPUs. UN police have gained importance in UN PeaceOperations, to the extent that they not only deliver core functions, but alsothe effective delivery of their functions is linked to the missions’ exitstrategies. UN police’ strength, in particular that of IPOs, is theirinteraction with the communities that they serve for, and information that arebased on that posture. Despite this, UN police are yet to be fully integratedinto the UN’s planning, strategies, operations and analysis, and struggle todeliver their functions efficiently. They suffer from insufficient andinadequate supply of human and other resources. UN Police are currently underreform. An external review suggested that their functions be considered in twodifferent types: protection and development and that appropriate human resourcebe provided for those functions.

  3. POCis a mandate that contains the biggest gap between what is expected and what isdelivered, according to the High Panel on UN Peace Operations. In particular,the role of the UN police is most unclear according to a study by the UNDepartment of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and the Office for theCoordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). The community-centered approach ofthe POC matches the strength of the UN police. It is suggested that the UNpolice play the central role in the delivery of the POC. For that, it isessential that the structure of command be clarified, POC operations to becivilian-led in principle, and the UN police to be fully involved POC planning,strategies, analysis and evaluation.


国連警察についてDCAF(軍の民主的統制ジュネーブセンター)との会議

9月23日、国際平和構築協会 会長の長谷川先生と
ジュネーブのDCAF(軍の民主的統制ジュネーブセンター)を訪れ、
国連警察の改革と日本の関連分野への協力の可能性についての意見交換ミーティングを行いました。
DCAFは、今年の夏に出された、
初めての国連警察の外部審査報告書において、
セクレタリアットとして機能した機関です。

報告書には、国連の安全保障理事会が採択するマンデートと
確保できる人材とのギャップが隠すところなく描き出され、
マンデートをより現実的なものにするか、
よりマンデートに合った人材を違う方法で確保するか、
どちらかしかない、ということが書かれていました。
私の国連警察についての研究においても、
これは顕著な問題で、大枠において報告書と同意するところが多いです。

ひとつだけ、報告書は国連警察が各国の警察官だけでなく
国連加盟国から送られる人材の中に文民の専門家を入れるのが良いとしており、
その点においては、私は文民の専門家を国連が選抜するのが良いと考えます。
なぜなら、国連警察の選抜においては、
不透明な部分が多く、ほぼ警察官だけで通気性も悪いため、
透明性を増し、また、必要な人材を国連が確保しやすいように、
文民の専門家については専門家のポストで国連が選抜するべきだと考えます。
加盟国からそれらのポストに資金を出してもらうのが困難だという場合には、
専門家のポストが資金を出す国出身の人限定のポストになることは考えられるでしょう。
それでも、国連が直接選抜に関われるという意味で、
加盟国が自国の国家公務員を
「セコンドメント」という方式で
国家公務員という立場を継続したまま国連に送るよりも
透明性が増すのではないかと思います。

以下、長谷川先生のウェブサイト上の記事にも掲載していただきました、
このミーティングに関する私の報告書です。


Report on the Consultation Meeting


Kihara-Hunt Ai


23 September 2016
DCAF office, Maison de la Paix, Geneva


Professor Sukehiro Hasegawa, President of the Global Peacebuilding Association of Japan (GPAJ) and Dr. Kihara-Hunt Ai, Fellow at the University of Essex and member of GPAJ, visited the DCAF office. From DCAF, Assistant Director of DCAF and Head of the International Security Sector Advisory Team (ISSAT) Dr. Mark Downes, ISSAT members Mr. Michael Johnson, Mr. Patrick Hagan, Mr. Pedro Rosa Menes, and Ms. Elsa Dazin attended the meeting. It served two main purposes: a) to discuss the report of external review of the UN police published in 2015, and b) to seek ways of cooperation between DCAF with Japan, taking into consideration recent trends in peacekeeping and peacebuilding in Japan.

 
Prof. Hasegawa introduced his initiatives in relation to United Nations (UN) studies in East Asia. He chairs the Global Peacebuilding Association, which provides a forum for academics and practitioners in Japan to discuss issues related to peacebuilding. East Asian Forum on Peace Operations involves experts and academics from Japan, China, South Korea and Mongolia. It had the first expert gathering in April 2016. Academic Council on the United Nations System (ACUNS)’ East Asian branch has academics and practitioners from Japan, China and Korea. Prof. Hasegawa expressed his intent to create an impact by bringing experts in neighbouring countries together.


Dr. Mark Downs explained the mode of operation of DCAF, which is consisted of member States, currently of 64 of them. They are mostly European States, but DCAF is attempting to be a more global organization, and would welcome Japan as a member. Mostly DCAF deals directly with government entities, and the model of cooperation and assistance is tailored to specific needs of the member States. Currently three geographic areas are in focus: Europe, Middle East and North Africa, and Sub Saharan Africa. International Security Sector Advisory Team (ISSAT) is a standing capacity to support international capacity, through advice, training and capacity building, knowledge services and advocacy.


Last year, DCAF worked as the secretariat for the external UN Police review. The review was co-chaired by former Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG) Hilde F. Johnson and Ambassador Abdallah Wafy, the Permanent Representative of Niger to the UN in New York, and the team was consisted of seven experts. They had consultations at the headquarters and in the field, including through a 3-day workshop in Entebbe, Uganda, consultations with Group of Friends, 10 top Police Contributing Countries (PCCs), senior police advisors and members of Special Committee on Peace-Keeping Operations (C-34).


Findings of the external review on the UN Police were presented. The UN Police are operating in changing environment, and face a number of challenges including that of struggle to secure sufficient number of appropriately trained police personnel, militarization of police, and the increased complexity of mandates that have to be delivered with the same type of police personnel. At times they must deliver tasks that they are not trained in, and as a result they deliver diverse results. The UN is left with two choices: to make fundamental changes in the supply of human resource to deliver the mandate, or to make the mandate less ambitious. Providing assistance in institution building requires different skills from those of policing or providing training. For some of those newly required skills, civilian experts would be better suited than uniformed personnel.


It was generally agreed that the challenges of the UN police are of the nature that requires a significant change in the UN police’s approach. Civilian expertise may be necessary in a number of areas, for example, to address finance at the ministry level to effect changes in the host State’s police institutions. However, there is a big divide in PCCs on what capacity they are willing to send. Security Sector Reform (SSR) requires a long-term commitment with development approach, working alongside the national government.


Therefore, the involvement of political figures in the host State is vital. The focus cannot just be on the effectiveness of the security sector but also on ensuring that there is system in place to utilize it. It was also agreed that the UN Police needs to be integrated into the bigger picture of UN Peace Operations, and for that, their key positions need to be made more senior. Prof. Hasegawa raised the possibility of values added in taking Eastern approach into account, where peace is considered to be akin to harmony.


Above analysis was discussed in some details in the settings of Timor-Leste and South Sudan. An agreement was reached in that Sustainable Development Goal (STG) 16 (Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions) is universal, but that recognition of realism is necessary. Changes happen over a long period of time.


Dr. Kihara-Hunt presented findings of her research on individual accountability of UN Police personnel. The data and analysis of UN accountability mechanism indicated that the issue of accountability is also linked to bigger challenges that the UN Police is facing: that of human resource, changing environment in which they operate, structure, transparency and institutional culture of accountability.


Prof. Hasegawa presented ideas for Japan’s contribution in the area of Peace Operations. One idea is to have a UN Police academy in Japan to train national police officers in the region and certify them fit for UN Peace Operations. Japan is already spending USD 30-40 million to African institutions, and it may be better for Japan to expand what it does well and provide training for police to join the mission, rather than to defend its inaction. With the current paradigm shift in the domestic arena, Japan is sending military contingents to South Sudan. They can protect UN and Japanese personnel, but not local civilians. This may cause friction on the ground, as it is not consistent with the Protection of Civilians (POC) mandate that the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) has. It is recognized that POC mandates are so challenging that they are not always delivered on the ground anyway. However, in some situations, it may be better that the UN is not there on the ground rather than being there while failing to deliver POC mandate.

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