キハラハント愛の徒然日記

国連平和維持活動、国際人権法、国際人道法、法の支配、治安部門改革の分野で活動するキハラハント愛のブログです。

正義か平和か

現在東京大学で教えていますが
有難いことに
色々な会議や大学での講義にご招待いただくことも多くあります。

先週は関西学院大学と
東京女子大学の講義に。
偶然にも同じような内容での依頼だったので
移行期の正義との関係で
東ティモールやネパールのお話をしました。

日本の大学で教えるようになってから
国連やイギリスの大学にいた頃には聞かれなかったことで
頻繁に聞かれることが2つあります。

1点目は、人権とは西洋的な価値ではないか。
2点目が、正義と平和は対立するのではないか。

このような点を
純粋にどうなのかと考えて質問してくれる
学生さんたちからだけでなく、
既に「正義は平和を邪魔する」と
ご自身の中では答えを出されていると思われる
先生方や実務家の方から本当によく聞かれ、
初めは結構驚きました。

拷問を受けない権利を
全ての人が享受できない理由は何でしょうか。
平和なデモに参加したら
理由も分からず逮捕されてしまうのはおかしいと思うのは
西洋的な価値に偏っているからなのでしょうか。

人権は全ての人が享受でき、
国家との関係において
人々を守る最低限の個人の権利のことですから、
西洋的も東洋的もない、
普遍的なものです。
その適用の具体的な方法には
国による差があるのですが
人権の中核は共有されているものです。

関連して、
本当によく聞くのが
東ティモールでは大規模な人権侵害を行った
インドネシア側の加害者を訴追することを諦めたから
平和が達成されたのだ、
東ティモールのリーダー達はよくやった、という話です。

そうなのでしょうか。

1999年、東ティモールから独立を決めた後の争乱の後
初めて国連が同地に戻れた際に
私たちはオエクシ州に派遣されました。
大規模な破壊、
人口の4分の1から3分の1が命を失ったという
25年にも及ぶ内戦の後、
避難先から破壊尽くされた街に帰ってきて
衣食住に非常に不自由していた
東ティモールの住民たち。
初めて私たちが「国連事務所」とはり出したA4の紙を見て
何百人もの人たちが連日列を作りました。
彼らが口々に言ったのが
いなくなった夫を探してほしい、
息子を殺害したインドネシア軍の上官を訴追してほしい、
兄が殺されて埋められているので
埋葬するのを手伝ってほしい、
インドネシア軍がどのような指揮体系を持って
どのような指令を出していたかよく知っているから
伝えたい、
何とか訴追につなげてほしい、と、
9割以上の訴えは人権・移行期の正義に関わる訴えでした。
そのとても真剣な訴えに、
これは何とかしなければ、と、
通訳がまだ雇用されていなかったので
覚えたてのインドネシア語と
手伝ってくれた現地の住民の人たちと
時には地方の言葉、テトゥン語からインドネシア語へと
3回の通訳を通じて
ゆっくり理解し、
国連の本部にすぐに伝えなければ、と
コンピュータもまだ支給されていなかった空き家で
オエクシ州で起きた虐殺事件の概要を
手書きでまとめ、
その頃国連が週に2回運行していたヘリコプターの便に乗せました。
それがちょうど折よく
国連の人権部を設立すべく首都ディリに入っていた
当時の人権部長の目に触れ、
数日後には人権部長が
オエクシ州の集団墓地を視察に来たのです。

アカウンタビリティへの願いは
非常に確固としたものとして
一般の住民の中に共有されていました。
そこから訴追に持っていくまでの大変な道のり、
数々の、うまくいかなかったこと。
それは600人以上の人権侵害の被害者たちからの聞き取りと
真実和解委員会の立ち上げや
被害者の支援などをしていた私から見ても
大変歯がゆいものであったことは
間違いありません。
それでもあの住民の人たちの訴えをそのままにして
長く続く平和の基盤が作れるのでしょうか。
インドネシアとの友好関係と引き換えに
彼ら住民の声を置き去りにしたまま
東ティモールは長い平和を築いていけるのでしょうか。
東ティモールのリーダーたちは、
住民たちの声を丁寧に聞き取って行かなければなりません。

先週、ある場面で
「真実か、正義か、と言ったら
彼女は正義だと言うでしょう。」と言われました。

そうではありません。

真実か、正義かということは、
より正確には
どのような真実とどのような正義の形を求めるかということは、
国の主人公である住民が決めることなのです。
真実も、正義も、どちらも捨ててしまうわけにはいかないと思います。
少なくとも東ティモールに関しては
自信を持ってそう言えます。

幸いにも東ティモールの場合は
主に東ティモールの市民団体や地域のリーダーたちの協力と
真実和解委員会の地道な仕事によって、
個人個人と共同体としての「真実」が
記録され、コミュニティとして記憶されました。

東ティモールの国のリーダー達は
住民を取り残すことなく
長続きする平和の基盤を築いていってほしいです。
リーダー達を取り巻く
諸国や国際機関などのリーダー達にも
正義か、平和か、などと煽ることなく
平和への道を
地道に支えて行ってほしいと切に思った次第でした。

国際法ハブより国連人権理事会に報告書を提出

一連のコロナ禍により、
脆弱性を持つ人々や団体がより脆弱な立場に置かれているということは
以前に書きました

私がディレクターを務める東京大学の国際法研修・研究ハブに、
国連人権高等弁務官事務所から依頼を受けて、
同事務所を通じて国連人権理事会に、
COVID-19への対応、コロナ対策による影響を和らげるベストプラクティスの例を
調査・報告しています。
アジアの国々について
ハブの学生さんが調査をし、
途中結果をまとめたものを
11月末に国連人権高等弁務官事務所に提出しました。

こちらに内容をアップしてあります。

下記にも掲載します。
ーー

UOTIL Hub's Contributions to UN-OHCHR's report to HRC regarding impact of COVID-19 on Human Rights

By Dr. Ai Kihara-Hunt, with support of the team at International Law Training and Research Hub (UOTIL Hub)

On 5 October 2020, the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (UN-OHCHR) requested the International Law Training and Research Hub, the University of Tokyo (UOTIL Hub), to make ‘contributions concerning promising/good human rights practices in response to COVID-19 and the recovery’ in Asia, by a letter with a reference number: OHCHR/TESRPRD/DESIB. This request was pursuant to the cooperation agreement between the UN-OHCHR and UOTIL Hub, following the Statement by the President of the Human Rights Council on human rights implications of the COVID-19 pandemic (PRST 43/1) of 29 May 2020.

UOTIL Hub has researched on good practices from the following countries and territories: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. The first phase of research was between June and August 2020, where six student researchers collected information from publicly accessible sources, chiefly information available on the internet. ​In searching for information, UOTIL Hub’s and personal networks of the team were resorted to. Languages used for searching for information are: English, Japanese, Chinese Mandarin, Korean, Nepali, Hindi, and Taiwanese Mandarin. Information on good practice was inserted in a database created by the UN-OHCHR. A total of 129​ entries were recorded in the database during the first phase of research ( (Afghanistan: 2; Bangladesh: 13; Bhutan: 4; Brunei: 2; Cambodia: 5; China: 8; Hong Kong: 4; India: 3; Indonesia: 4; Japan: 10; Laos: 6; Malaysia: 3; Maldives: 4; Mongolia: 4; Nepal: 1; Pakistan: 6; Philippines: 17; Republic of Korea: 2; Singapore: 8; Sri Lanka: 8; Taiwan: 3; Thailand: 7; and Vietnam: 5). In identifying good practices, the UOTIL Hub team used the indicator provided by the UN-OHCHR, as follows: "[e]ffective actions (or sets of actions) which are in compliance with international law, including international human rights norms and standards, contribute to the enjoyment of human rights, demonstrate sustainable results through quantitative and/or qualitative evidence of positive impact, and have the potential to be successfully adapted and replicated in other contexts."

In collecting information, particular attention was paid to the extent to which such practice benefited (a) marginalized or vulnerable group(s).

Preliminary Analysis of Best Practice
It is very apparent that plentiful and diverse actors took action alongside the national and local governments to ease the negative effect of the COVID-19 pandemic itself and related restrictions. Reported actions generally took the form of providing services, either newly-instituted, or an expanded or modified form of an existing practice. Actors include non-governmental organizations, self-help networks, cooperatives, trade unions, academic institutions and youth groups. In particular, it is noteworthy that business entities were very much responsive to the situation. Also noted is the involvement of actors that are more loosely connected than established organizations.

A youth-led volunteers’ network in Nepal may illustrate such a network. Hundreds of self-help groups and volunteers were led by youth, who have spread a series of food bank campaigns throughout the country. The campaign provides free food to the homeless and unemployed persons. Reportedly this network has been supplying food for around 600 people every day in Khula Manch, Kathmandu, for several months.

Most actors appear to have built, or are building their responses on networks that they had had prior to the pandemic. It was also observed that the content of these services are built on the strength the provider had, and expanded on their existing services.

The response of Wishes and Blessings, an NGO in Delhi, India, illustrates this. Prior to the pandemic, the NGO served three meals per day to around 600 underprivileged people in Delhi. Since the onset of the pandemic, they have been serving meals for around 15,000 people in six states through partnerships with multiple NGOs.

This approach of building on existing networks and practices appears to be most appropriate because vulnerability and marginalization of target groups and individuals have multiplied and have become more apparent due to the pandemic, and is rarely triggered by the onset of the pandemic. Newly-created vulnerability applied generally to the public, by the threat of COVID-19 and reduced access to commodities and services, but the situation of already vulnerable people was exacerbated disproportionately, pushing them further into vulnerability. This enabled actors to operate effectively by using their existing networks to reach out to the vulnerable and marginalized people in society. Examples of target groups are foreign workers, asylum seekers, homeless people, unemployed persons, sex workers, rural population, people living in poverty, and victims of domestic and sexual violence. One group that has been facing a new level of vulnerability are medical personnel and people providing services directly related to the pandemic, such as cleaners and security forces, and that good examples exist in supporting this new vulnerable group.

An example of supporting newly-vulnerable groups is assistance in the form of basic supplies to those who work in COVID-19 response is in Shanghai, China, led by a commercial shopping center. Ganhui Center established an 'Unattended Holding Cabinet' in February 2020 for citizens to provide free food and drink for takeaway staff, cleaners and police personnel. The Cabinet is reportedly being widely used.

There have been notable responses in various forms: from protective gears, medicine and medical services, cash, food, information, education, training and business platforms. For example, eVidyaloka, an NGO in India, works in the education sector. It connects volunteer teachers in the world with students in rural areas in India by using a communication programme on the internet, reaching out to underprivileged children, especially girls, who stay home due to COVID-19 restrictions. It supplements students’ learning by delivering textbooks to those children.

An innovative response was seen in the Republic of Korea, particularly in terms of suicide prevention. The Seoul Youth Guarantee Center is an online government-run counseling program for suicide prevention, expanded in a large scale in response to a 36% increase in the number of women who deliberately harmed themselves in the first half of 2020 due to the effect of the pandemic-related restrictions. They more than doubled the original target of 700 counselors and received around 5,000 calls (31.6 percent more than the previous year).

The research team often found information pertaining to certain target groups, such as victims of domestic violence and child abuse, and sex workers. It is unclear whether or not this is because information was more easily available due to the attention given to those groups, following media reports on their situation.

One such example is from the National Network of Sex Workers in India, providing food to families of sex workers in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Jharkhand in India. The Network responds to the needs of sex workers, whose work opportunities have significantly decreased due to the pandemic.

There is also an apparent frequency of responses involving the use of technology and innovative practices. Technologies used range from very high-tech to relatively low-tech, involving computer softwares and mobile phone applications that match needs and demands, creation of digital platforms, information dissemination on the internet space, automatic dispensing machines, and 3D printers.

For example, a specialized software development and servicing company developed a fast digital tea bidding platform for tea in Sri Lanka, making the tea auction safe and secure. By ensuring that the tea market continues to operate amidst COVID-19, the livelihood of almost two million people involved in the tea plantation business were secured. This has had a particularly positive effect on women, who make up most of the primary workforce in tea-picking.

In another example, a Japanese non-governmental organization (NGO) provided cash grants through a mobile phone system to internally displaced persons (IDPs) and repatriated refugees affected by the spread of COVID-19 in Bamiyan, Afghanistan. This unique assistance worked across the border, and the distribution was followed up by monitoring through phone and in-person interviews.

3D printers were used in another example. T​he Hong Kong Polytechnic University​ developed reusable 3D-printed eye visors and face shields for hospitals. These were used by medical workers for protection from COVID-19 infection.

Yet another example responds to exacerbated food insecurity during the pandemic. A businessman in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, invented a ‘Rice ATM’, an always accessible automatic rice dispensing machine to give people access to rice, a basic food staple in Vietnam. Similar machines have reportedly been set up in Hanoi, Hue and Danang provinces in Vietnam.

Many of the effective measures responsive to the particular need of beneficiaries appear to be locally based, or community based, and operated on a small scale. For example, Women Enablers Advocates and Volunteers for Empowering and Responsive Solutions (WEAVER) and the Divisoria Peatland Farmers Association are working in response to specific needs in small communities in Leyte province, the Philippines. They encourage senior citizens to engage in collective subsistence farming.This activity aims not only to secure food sources, but also to open up more livelihood opportunities for the local population by pursuing the replanting crops that have multiple uses.

In similar interventions, materials used can be uniquely local, too. For example, in Cotabato, Philippines, weavers and workers in a cooperative exporting bamboo products have shifted from its ordinary business to making face shields using bamboo frames.

Oftentimes, such interventions were of self-help type, assisting in the identification of specific needs of the group and the preparation of responses that benefit them most effectively. For example, in Taiwan, the first labour union by and for foreign workers has provided tailored assistance to migrant workers. Not only did they distribute medical supplies to migrant fishermen, but also provided legal support and information on human rights-related issues such as the exploitative nature of their work, especially in the time of COVID-19.

As with the above example, where business entities are involved, numerous examples of repurposing economic activities were collected. Amongst them, the example of immediate repurposing by a business corporation making surgical masks during the phase of mask shortage in Japan at the onset of the pandemic, appears to have made a positive impact on the population seeking to protect themselves. Other business corporations followed suit by manufacturing thermometers, thermal cameras, partitions, face shield and masks.

One type of service appeared frequently in the team’s search for good practice, and seems effective and cost-efficient. That is the provision of accessible and understandable information for target groups. One subtype is raising awareness about COVID-19 prevention, necessary measures and treatment, and COVID tests and medical services available. Another subtype is providing information about available services, both public and private, on a range of issues including educational resources, housing and necessary commodities.

An example of such is the use of a digital networking application for accelerated training and recruitment of medical practitioners. Docquity is such an application used in Indonesia. With the cooperation of the Health Ministry, it provided on-line training platforms. Seminars, on-line lectures and training by medical experts were provided to trainees and volunteers. Through the use of this digital network, recipients can update and develop their practical medical knowledge, and boost hospitals’ capacity to deal with COVID-19 patients and related issues. This also accelerated recruitment of volunteer medical practitioners.

The practice of a foundation working on women’s shelters in Taipei city, Taiwan, is also a good example. The Garden of Hope Foundation from the Asian Network of Women's Shelters not only provides services, but also assists survivors of gender-based violence through information on available resources such as shelters.

Conclusion
Preliminary findings indicate that interventions based on existing networks and particular strength of actors, which are locally provided based on the specific situation of target communities effectively assist in protecting vulnerable and marginalized groups. In this time of pandemic, various actors, including different types of civil society groups, self-help networks and business entities, have been innovatively repurposing their responses. It is particularly apparent that technology is being used to tailor services to respond to particular needs and situations of target beneficiaries.

The crowdsourcing research is presently at a stage of checking with organizations and beneficiaries involved to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of the practices identified in the database. Where beneficiaries stories confirm that the service helped ease the vulnerability/marginalization caused by COVID-19 and related restrictions, and where the practice may be transferable to other services, target groups or geographic areas, the research team will recommend sharing and expanding these examples as universal model responses. Further information on these best practices in the region will be collected simultaneously.

[The following student researchers made contribution​s: Amishi Agrawal, Raymond Andaya, Tong Fei, Paul Namkoong Hwa, Dinesh Joshi, and Chihiro Toya. ​Additionally, the author would like to thank Mr. Raymond Andaya for editing this submission.]


ICRC国際人道法模擬裁判 優勝おめでとう!

Screenshot (221)
11月28‐29日の週末に
赤十字国際委員会(ICRC)主催の国際人道法模擬裁判が開催されました。
東京大学のチームは3人のチーム。

4月に初めて国際法を始めた、当時学部1年生、現在2年生のチームです。

3人とも初めての国際法、初めての国際人道法、もちろん模擬裁判も初めての経験です。

毎年模擬裁判に出場する学生さんを見ていると、本当によく頑張るなと感心しますが、この3人の情熱は素晴らしかった...

国際人道法のABCから始まったのに、チームメートがお互いに励まし合って細かく締め切りを設定、
しかもそれが大体守られていた模様です。メモリアルの下書きが書けたのは例年になく早く、
判例を探して来るのも非常にうまかったし、何度も出題されたシナリオと同じ判例を読み直し、
細かいところによく気づき、何より諦めることのない真っすぐな情熱でした。
チームワークが素晴らしく、お互いに気遣える3人は、教えていても、練習に(オンラインで)立ち会っていても、毎回非常に清々しく、新しい判例を見つけて来ては使えそうな議論を組み立てたり、
チームの中で議論が通っているかテストし合ったり、何かを学ぶ仲間というのはこういう仲間が良いなと、羨ましくも思いました。

写真は東大チームの3人、左からChris Clayton, Mei Kanehara,(私:コーチ),
Timothy Massie、優勝した後に撮りました。
(今年はコロナ禍の中のオンライン開催のため、写真撮影以外は常時マスクをし、スピーカーの間にはパーティションを立て、ハンドスプレーとワイプを備えての大会となりました。
感染症対策、wifiの設置などでお手伝いいただきました東京大学の関係者の方々にも、この場をお借りして御礼申しあげます。)
MeiとChrisが同点でBest Mooter賞も受賞しました。

チームの一人一人が物凄い情熱をかけて準備をし、
楽しみながらお互いを支えながら大会に臨む姿勢をずっと見ていたので、
心からおめでとうと祝ってあげたく、誇らしく思います。
熟読したことのなかった判例の内容や、一般的な解釈と違う解釈の可能性など、大会で披露しなかった数々の独自の点がたくさんあり、コーチである私もその都度確認しては驚愕しておりました。

大変説得力のある議論を展開した他のチームの弁論者たち、背後で支えていたコーチ、サポーター、運営の中心を担ったICRCや大学の関係者の皆様、どうもありがとうございました。
東大の運営チームの皆さんも、どうもありがとう。

将来が本当に楽しみな、近いうちに必ず世界の最前線に出ていく3人と、早く同じ舞台で人を救う仕事をしたいです。自分が進みたい方向を見据えて自信を持って羽ばたいて行ってほしいです。

チーム208、優勝おめでとう。

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